SKIN CANCER


What is Skin Cancer?

Skin cancers are skin growths with differing causes and varying degrees of malignancy. The three most common malignant skin cancers are basal cell cancer, squamous cell cancer, and melanoma. Skin cancer generally develops in the epidermis (the outermost layer of skin), so a tumor can usually be seen. This means that it is often possible to detect skin cancers at an early stage. Only the minority of those affected will actually die from the disease, though it can be disfiguring.  Melanoma is less common than both basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, but it is the most serious. Most cases are caused by over-exposure to UV rays from the sun or sunbeds.

Risk Factors of Skin Cancer

Ultraviolet radiation from sun exposure is the primary cause of skin cancer. Other factors that play a role include: smoking tobacco; HPV infections, which increase the risk of squamous cell carcinoma; chronic non-healing wounds, which can develop into squamous cell carcinoma; environmental carcinogens, artificial UV radiation (e.g. tanning beds), aging, and light skin color.

Symptoms of Skin Cancer

There are a variety of different skin cancer symptoms. These include changes in the skin that do not heal, ulcering in the skin, discolored skin, and changes in existing moles.

Basal cell carcinoma usually presents as a raised, smooth, pearly bump on the sun-exposed skin of the head, neck or shoulders. Sometimes small blood vessels can be seen within the tumor. Crusting and bleeding in the center of the tumor frequently develops.

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is commonly a red, scaling, thickened patch on sun-exposed skin. Some are firm hard nodules and dome shaped like keratoacanthomas. Ulceration and bleeding may occur. When SCC is not treated, it may develop into a large mass.

Most melanomas are brown to black looking lesions. Unfortunately, a few melanomas are pink, red or fleshy in color; these are called amelanotic melanomas. These tend to be more aggressive. Warning signs of malignant melanoma include change in the size, shape, color or elevation of a mole. Other signs are the appearance of a new mole during adulthood or new pain, itching, ulceration or bleeding.

Prevention of Skin Cancer

The risk of developing skin cancer can be reduced through a number of measures including: decreasing indoor tanning and mid day sun exposure; avoiding the use of tobacco products; reducing overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, especially in early years; wearing protective clothing (long sleeves and hats) and broad-spectrum sunscreen that blocks both UVA and UVB radiation outdoors.

Treatment Options for Skin Cancer at FROS Radiation Oncology Cyberknife Center:

At FROS Radiation Oncology Cyberknife Center, our team is committed to bringing leading-edge technology with highly compassionate care to our patients.

Please call us at 1-888-880-6646 today to find the right treatment for you.

 

 

ESOPHAGEAL CANCER


What is Esophageal Cancer?

Esophageal cancer begins in the esophagus. Esophageal cancer embodies two distinct histopathologic types, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. If the cancer spreads outside the esophagus, it often goes to the lymph nodes first then spread to almost any other part of the body. Esophageal cancer is more common in men than in women.

Risk Factors of Esophageal Cancer

Tobacco and alcohol use are considered the major contributing factors in the development of esophageal cancer worldwide. Low socioeconomic status as defined by income, education, or occupation is associated with increased risk for esophageal cancer. Increased body mass index is a risk factor. Gastroesophageal reflux disease has been implicated as one of the strongest risk factors.

Symptoms of Esophageal Cancer

The most common symptoms are dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) and weight loss.

Treatment Options for Esophageal Cancer at FROS Radiation Oncology Cyberknife Center:

At FROS Radiation Oncology Cyberknife Center, our team is committed to bringing leading-edge technology with highly compassionate care to our patients.

Please call us at 1-888-880-6646 today to find the right treatment for you.

 

 

LYMPHOMA CANCER


What is Lymphoma Cancer?

Lymph is considered a part of the interstitial fluid, the fluid which lies in the interstices of all body tissues. Interstitial fluid becomes lymph when it enters a lymph capillary. The lymph then travels to at least one lymph node before emptying ultimately into the right or the left subclavian vein, where it mixes back with blood. Lymph returns protein and excess interstitial fluid to the circulation. Lymph picks up bacteria and brings them to lymph nodes to be destroyed. Metastatic cancer cells can also be transported via lymph. Lymph also transports fats from the digestive system.

Typically, lymphomas appear as a solid tumor of lymphoid cells. These malignant cells often originate in lymph nodes, appearing as an enlargement of the node (a tumor). It can also affect other organs in which case it is referred to as extranodal lymphoma. Extranodal sites include the skin, brain, bowels and bone.

There are two major types of lymphoma: Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

Risk Factors of Lymphoma Cancer

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA has been identified in tumor tissue from many of patients, indicating an important and early role for the virus in tumor development. The cause of Hodgkin’s disease remains unknown.

Symptoms of Lymphoma Cancer

Non-specific symptoms could be anorexia, dyspnea (shortness of breath), fatigue, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, night sweats, pruritus, and weight loss.

Treatment Options for Lymphoma Cancer at FROS Radiation Oncology Cyberknife Center:

At FROS Radiation Oncology Cyberknife Center, our team is committed to bringing leading-edge technology with highly compassionate care to our patients.

Please call us at 1-888-880-6646 today to find the right treatment for you.

 

 

BLADDER CANCER


What is Bladder Cancer?

Bladder cancer is any of several types of malignant growths in the urinary bladder. It is two and a half times more common in males than in females. The incidence increases with age and peaks in the sixth and seventh decades of life. The most common type of bladder cancer begins in cells lining the inside of the bladder and is called transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).

Risk Factors of Bladder Cancer

Tobacco smoking is the main known contributor to urinary bladder cancer; there is a linear relationship between smoking and risk, and quitting smoking reduces the risk. Occupations at risk are bus drivers, rubber workers, motor mechanics, leather (including shoe) workers, blacksmiths, machine setters and mechanics. Hairdressers are thought to be at risk as well because of their frequent exposure to permanent hair dyes.

Symptoms of Bladder Cancer

The most common symptom is gross painless hematuria (blood in urine). Unexplained frequency and irritative voiding symptoms should alert one to the possibility of cancer.

Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer

The workup of suspected bladder cancer should include a urine cytology test, a cystoscopy test and computed tomography (CT).

Treatment Options for Bladder Cancer at FROS Radiation Oncology Cyberknife Center:

At FROS Radiation Oncology Cyberknife Center, our team is committed to bringing leading-edge technology with highly compassionate care to our patients.

Please call us at 1-888-880-6646 today to find the right treatment for you.

 

 

GYNECOLOGIC CANCER


What is Gynecologic Cancer?

Gynecologic cancer refers to cancer of the female reproductive system, including ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, cervical cancer, and vulvar cancer. Gynecologic cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer in women, affecting approximately 1 in 20 women. In the United States each year 82,000 women are diagnosed with gynecologic cancer.

Risk Factors of Gynecologic Cancer

Cancer of the Cervix: Molecular and epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and invasive carcinomas of the cervix.

Cancers of the Uterine Body: The best-recognized risk factors for the development of the cancer can be related to chronic estrogen exposure. These include oral intake of exogenous estrogen, estrogen-secreting tumors, and low parity.

Ovarian Cancer: In most cases, the exact cause of ovarian cancer remains unknown. The risk of developing ovarian cancer appears to be affected by several factors: genetic mutations, chronic estrogen exposure. The more children a woman have, the lower her risk of ovarian cancer.

Symptoms of Gynecologic Cancer

Cancer of the Cervix, Vagina, and Vulva: The earliest symptom of invasive cervical cancer is usually abnormal vaginal bleeding, often after coitus of vaginal douching. Pain in the pelvis could be symptom.

Cancers of the Uterine Body: Abnormal vaginal bleeding.

Ovarian Cancer: 95% of patients have nonspecific abdominal symptoms.

Diagnosis of Gynecologic Cancer

Cancer of the Cervix, Vagina, and Vulva:  Biopsy is used to diagnose and is an essential step in the diagnosis.

Cancers of the Uterine Body: A diagnosis should be considered in postmenopausal women with any vaginal bleeding, peri-menopausal women with heavy or prolonged bleeding and pre-menopausal women with abnormal bleeding patterns. Outpatient endometrial biopsy leads to the accurate diagnosis.

Ovarian Cancer: Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) and abdominal ultrasonography are the most useful diagnostic examinations.

Treatment Options for Gynecologic Cancer at FROS Radiation Oncology Cyberknife Center:

At FROS Radiation Oncology Cyberknife Center, our team is committed to bringing leading-edge technology with highly compassionate care to our patients.

Please call us at 1-888-880-6646 today to find the right treatment for you.

 

 

IN THE NEWS

August 28, 2013

June 1, 2013

FROS attending physicians, Alan Katz and Josephine Kang, to give an oral presentation at this year's ASTRO meeting on long term outcomes after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer.

VIDEOS

The Redefining Radiosurgery Video gives definitive clinical, hospital and patient benefits as compared to other radiation therapy and systems.

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